Use an SSH tunnel ending at the host also within a Docker container

There are many use cases for SSH tunnels as they allow accessing resources behind firewalls and other obstacles over a secure channel. Since more and more services are containerized, it makes sense to use SSH tunnels also within the context of containers, especially for testing. Using SSH tunnels within Docker containers would require installing an SSH client and mounting keys. In many cases this is not possible without building a new Docker image which includes the client.